Friction welding receives behavior of flow of head plasticity metal to study the current situation

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Friction welding is received as a kind high grade, nicety, efficient, energy-saving the solid photograph with environmental protection joins technology, there is tremendous applied latent capacity in aerospace and general industry domain, in light quantify, the equipment of high reliability and low cost is made in have distinct advantage. For instance, in foreign industry power, inertial friction welding (IFW) use successfully already at aviation engine powder dish the join with the axis, linear friction welding (LFW) already was applied to tall hold in esteem to compare part of a historical period of aviation engine whole dish the key is made, agitate friction welding (FSW) already made with what wait for component of large aluminium alloy at plane engine room. Home also applied partial component part to make on. Home basically is centered in the research that reachs application to friction welding craft to the research of friction welding. And less to friction welding basic research, up to now still problem of a few background science remains to clarify, wait like behavior of flow of metal of plasticity of heat source mechanism, connect. As a result of domestic basic research lag behind and the block of foreign technology, make the stability of quality of friction welding connect and dependability inferior, restricted the friction welding large-scale application on domestic important component part consequently. Friction welding is a height that involves temperature, mechanical, metallurgy and its interaction complex process, the plasticity that material handles with attrition interface in this process is out of shape give priority to, of the generation that the interface is in the generation that plasticity metal flows and behavior of going from place to place to will affect heat source and interface diffuse to reply with trends recrystallization, affect then solder the quality of contact. Plasticity metal layer is whole enclothe with firm ground at attrition interface, right whether form flawless, high grade solder contact has main effect. Accordingly, action of flow of metal of the plasticity in studying friction welding receives a process is very significant. Carry the research that flows to friction welding plasticity, build solder to receive the influence rule that parameter flows to plasticity, solder to deciding parameter, optimize solder the craft, organization that controls welding line connect and function, rise then solder quality has fundamental economic value. Rotate the research of inchoate concerned friction welding basically is in abroad of flow of plasticity of metal of friction welding connect centrally rotate the numeric research that friction welding connect forms flow of the plasticity in the process and temperature field. 1973, the successive drive friction welding that Duffin and Bahrani are in charge of to mild steel received a process to undertake experimental research and analysis, craft standard parameter and sample be out of shape the circumstance undertook relevant analysis. 1985, the attrition phase of the process of successive drive friction welding that Francis and Craine are aimed at thin wall pipe fitting (do not include upset level) undertook an analysis, the Newtonian fluid that is out of shape the layer should do big viscosity, considered to be out of shape a ply, axial shortens the relation of quantity and temperature. A few document use analytic law to built the analytic model of plasticity area to have qualitative research to friction welding. Wait for the plasticity that uses project stress to solved analyse law to build plasticity division to be out of shape like Rich model, described upset to be out of shape from theoretic qualitative ground the condition of going from place to place of level plasticity area. 1994, the friction welding that Midling and Grong used experiment and analytic method to study Al-Mg-Si alloy and Al-SiC composite material accepts deed of the temperature change in the process and plasticity flow, forecasted the field of meet an emergency of contact and temperature field. 1997, the person such as Bendzsak adopts analytic method, to the plasticity metal of connect of inertial friction welding behavior of going from place to place undertook the abecedarian is elaborated. The processing with above document hot attrition is input from attrition interface with the form of equivalent heat flux, the model simplifies overmuch, although the part is calculated result and experimental result be identical, the plasticity flow behavior below friction welding condition still was not clarified well. Domestic ability shade is equal to first used 1984 in stopping a technology urgently to receive a process to friction welding of 45 steel successive drive, be out of shape the patulous process of layer and high temperature area undertook study. The experiment began attrition pressure and attrition time to be out of shape layer and high temperature area expand the research of process rule, announced to heat in attrition in the begining, the attrition that is out of shape layer head preexistence is apart from radius of 1/2~2/3 of the centre of a circle to be in apparently form. Be out of shape the ply of the layer increases along with the accretion of attrition pressure. Shi Bi uses analytic law to receive the high temperature plasticity in the process to be out of shape the area undertakes study to friction welding, analysed qualitatively solder the parameter influence to plasticity area width. Recently, zhang Quanzhong is based on play plasticity finite yuan of theory, built GH4169 annular the heating power coupling that receives a process calculates an inertial friction welding model, used this model to be analysed mensurably annular a friction welding receive area of process connect plasticity distributing, patulous rule and plasticity of plasticity area metal are out of shape of rate distributing and metabolic circumstance. Agitate friction welding receives process plasticity to flow to receive a process in agitate friction welding in, tool appearance, solder parameter and the plasticity flow that need solder material to affect welding line metal directly, decided solder is nuclear area, thermomechanical thereby the size that affects area, hot influence area and function. What the research technique that flows to metal of plasticity of the welding line in process of agitate friction welding basically includes material to flow at present is visible with computer simulation 2 respects. Method of test of 1 experiment means is to achieve the significant step with visible flow of friction welding plasticity, received behavior of flow of course material plasticity domestic and internationally to undertake a large number of experiments study to agitate friction welding in recent years, uses method basically has: Heterogeneous alloy / the metal solders, observation of welding line organization, mark shows footprint technology to wait. Involved main technology has mix refrigerant technology mixes the needle to stop a technology urgently. The complex plasticity in be visible welding line flows, murr studied agitate friction welding receives 2024Al and 6061Al, the join of heterogeneous material of copper and 6061Al. Ouyang studied FSW solders the data flow behavior of 2024Al and 6061Al, blend component of welding line area area, plasticity flow area and the blame that comprise by brilliant waiting for an axis to blend a division for machinery. Of heterogeneous metal place the position to will affect welding line organization and data flow configuration: In because mix effect enters hard alloy,placing the soft aluminium alloy at ongoing side when, configuration of flow of its eddy shape relatively solder when coequal hardness alloy more apparent; And be located in when hard alloy when ongoing side, hard alloy is entered by agitate when soft metal, hard metal held cross section welding line almost, pattern of flow of shape of Dan Xuan eddy is not clear. Krishnan is used solder differently parameter studied 6061Al of agitate friction welding and 7075Al alloy " onion cirque " fashion a process. Green annulus appearance is material plasticity flow is direct reflect, this is the base that uses group texture to study material plasticity flows, and the plasticity flow process that studies whole to research data to what green annulus forms mechanism is having important sense. Colligan the act of going from place to place that used steel to the ball dogs and stopped a technology urgently to study connect of friction welding of aluminium alloy agitate. Colligan points out process of agitate friction welding is material agitate and extruding the result of joint action, the stuff showing trace that has different flow character and density will bring about different outcome. Label the technology that show trace is the method that most commonly used observation metal plasticity flows, it is enter heterogeneous material or element through be being filled in alloy mother capable person, the lookout after solder writes heterogeneous material or the element seams contact to distributing mediumly in solder, contrast solders around is heterogeneous the positional change state of material or element, determine the condition of going from place to place of welding line metal thereby. Current, the uses data that show trace basically has: Have with mother capable person different caustic aluminium alloy material, Copper Foil, Al-SiCp and Al-W composite material. Be based on number stuff and flow of metal of mother capable person to agree and do not affect flow of metal of mother capable person, after soldering, with the mother material has what corrode difference apparently to choose a principle, reynolds and Seidel use number built-in technology (Marker Insert Technique) to the material of 2195Al-T8 of agitate friction welding behavior of going from place to place undertook study, edge of number stuff 5454Al-H32 capable person of mother of embedded of direction of welding, layout is shown 1 times like the graph. Corrode metallographic to observe discovery: Center of material edge welding line is asymmetrical flow, much mark material transfers it after solder of original position rear, have on ongoing side merely a few material transfers it original position ahead. Next, material is inside agitate needle limits, ongoing side material flows downward, and mobile on regressive side direction, "Agitate " effect only action is in welding line coping, here material is carried be rotated directly the influence of tool axis shoulder. Reynolds chafe agitate through above phenomenon the process is rough described as " former an extruding (In-situ Extruding) " process. Guerra uses interface to track appearance and solder be in agitate needle backwater when the end the technology inside welding line (agitate needle is refrigerant technology) the metallic flow that studied agitate friction welding receives 6061Al is characteristic. It embeds through be in interface place 0.

The foil of tall purity Cu of 1mm, solder hind undertakes microstructure observes, the experiment makes clear shed a condition of going from place to place to basically be comprised by 2 processes, the first process basically is metal of ahead of needle of ongoing side agitate as agitate needle direction of rotation rotates ongoing, metal of going from place to place gets the action of agitate needle thread and flow downward, backfill arrives ongoing side, the metal that another process is regressive side flow is squeezed to go out to advance with fill side. The material sex difference that 2 processes form severally is bigger, consequently civil get the verdict related flow of metal of the plasticity inside welding line function and welding line. As the big range application of composite material, investigator considered to use composite material to make mark material, if London uses Al-SiCp and Al-W composite material,serve as the material that show trace to received flow of 7075Al-T7451 material plasticity to undertake study to agitate friction welding. Experimental result makes clear, the material that is located in agitate needle ahead is risen apparently by tool dip action, metal of welding line ahead arises " plow agrarian behavior (Ploughing Action) " . The material that show trace is all round agitate needle happen cut, and be down to squash at the same time by the action of axial shoulder. London makes clear, in FSW material deflection depends on the relative position with agitate needle, side of welding line advancement shows footprint material distributinging extent relatively part of welding line center is wide. The research that Nextpage home flows to material plasticity starts later, the research technique in current document cites more experimental method of abroad, for example, xing Li agitate attrition technology that adopts research 2014Al alloy reachs an organization, to material plasticity flow undertook series figures. The report points out, direction of flow of metal of plasticity of the advanced welding line that take side and way of flow of metal of plasticity of mother capable person are opposite, make presence very large between metal of mother capable person and welding line metal be out of shape poor, returning direction of flow of direction of flow of metal of plasticity of side welding line and metal of plasticity of mother capable person to agree, metal of mother capable person is out of shape smoothly together with welding line metal. Luan Guogong uses heterogeneous aluminium alloy to build receive means to have test of agitate friction welding, organization of 2 kinds of aluminium alloy is compared to distributing in the position of welding line metal through observation after solder the case of going from place to place that metabolic circumstance decides welding line metal. Research uses red copper to do indicative material and mark to embed the technology studied metal of aluminium alloy plasticity flows respectively configuration. The experiment all got the experimental result of similar Reynolds and Seidel. The flow of metal of welding line of experimental method exploration has an operation the characteristic with simple, direct observation, and obtained certain positive result, but the complexity as a result of process of agitate friction welding, make workload of experimental sum of errors bigger, and can make qualitative analysis to the flow of welding line metal only. At the same time because experimental method cannot see the process that material flows directly and get very big limitation. The development of technology of 2 computers simulation as computer technology, apply analytic the method that builds a model with maths will study the analysis solders the flow of the material in the process makes a kind of important research instrument. Inchoate research uses 2 dimension model to undertake study to data flow more. Document built slip interface and attrition to contact 2 models imitate FSW process, computation forecasted the form of going from place to place of material, computational result and the result be identical that label built-in technology is obtained are better. Smith built model of flow of heating power coupling, this model rotates type of tool geometry, alloy, tool the process of going from place to place that tool position and speed, floating rate regarded input quantity as to calculate data. Colegrove used Fluent of software of hydrokinetics of 2 dimension computation to study the metal near FSW tool flows. The rule of going from place to place that wins rule of going from place to place and London and Guerra experiment to get is almost uniform. Document introduced a kind of numeric imitate and the method that experimental photograph combines in detail. The solid phase that numeric imitate builds is mechanical the stress in feature of flow of the speed field that the model defined to material flows, data and plasticity flow process distributings. Experimental part is to pass visible dog the technology solders certainly the mode of going from place to place of the material of around. Seidel be based on hydromechanical theory to build model of 2 dimension FSW, this model will solder FSW the process considers as laminar flow, agglutinant, non Newton fluid to bypass gyral cylinder agitate head. Material plasticity is out of shape produce heat to make welding line metal produces bate. 2 dimension model forecasted flow of welding line metal to be below most circumstance, material bypasses from regressive side agitate head flows. Be based on behavior of flow of hydromechanical analysis data is cannot accurate report data is soldering of the athletic essence in the process, a few scholars (wait like Zhang Hongwu) use general and finite the agitate process to FSW undertakes yuan of software ABAQUS 2 dimension imitate, considered to solder the condition of going from place to place of material of the weldment in process and soldering the stress of the material in the process and circumstance of meet an emergency. Get the following mode of 3 kinds of flow, namely: After the material of ongoing side winds week of agitate head revolution coming back, deposit is in the wake after agitate head; What the data of regressive side is come back to turn agitate head by agitate head directly is rear; The material that approachs point of intermediate welding line can be entered rotate the area circles agitate head to rotate. Above 2 dimension model is too simple, did overmuch hypothesis, can not represent real FSW flow character. England solders the Smith of the institute summed up simulative of flow of the data in process of agitate friction welding to make progress in document, point out model of three dimensional space of agitate friction welding has practice sense more. The applied business maneuver such as Colegrove calculates imitate of hydromechanical software FLUENT the plasticity of stuff of the metal in FSW process flows, the three-dimensional and slip model that built TrivexTM agitate head and TrifluteTM agitate head. These models announced the three-dimensional flow condition around bougie, forecasted transverse pressure and the pressure that are down direction. But in this model, colegrove did not consider head of agitate head corkscrewed yarn, agitate to tilt shape of coronal of top of the homocentric cirque on shoulder of angle, axis and agitate head bougie is raised the influence that flows to the fluid. The model that the flow that document uses temperature field to be aimed at the complex metal in welding line of agitate friction welding as attrib border condition builds was analysed solder the influence that rotate speed of head of speed, agitate coming back spends pair of models. Reached a lot of soldering the true feature in the process, but this model solders without dope pressure. The experiment before the person basis such as Nandan built three-dimensional metal to stick plasticity flow model, imitate result makes clear, heat of process of agitate friction welding is conducted and data flow is having apparent asymmetry sex, and as solder rotate speed of speed and agitate head coming back spends rise, this kind of asymmetry sex also is increasing. Recently, the person such as Nandan still built agitate friction welding to receive medium carbon steel three-dimensional stick plasticity flows and conduct heat model, the model uses blame Newton agglutinant computation metallic flow, the horizontal streamline that document got different deepness (show 2 times like the graph) , streamline indicated the presence of intimate circle, and for closed streamline, this explains material is put in circumfluence all round agitate needle. Still show data moves to basically happen in regressive side in the graph. The detailed in analysis of behavior of connect of friction welding of aluminium alloy agitate introduction such as domestic Luan Guogong the result that plasticity of connect of agitate friction welding sheds variable to be worth imitate earning to arrive. Fall in shoulder of agitate head axis about 1.

5mm place, the existence in the plasticity fluid structure of side of advancement of agitate friction welding does not stabilize area -- turbulence area. The existence of this turbulence area meets what change metallic stuff badly to transfer way. Wang Dayong in establishing procedure of agitate friction welding thermoplastic the model of physics of behavior of going from place to place of bate area, distinguish plasticity bate it is 3: Near axial shoulder, near agitate needle upside and agitate needle lower end. Adopt a model build and computation reachs 3 material flows feature each are not identical: Because agitate needle is in then all right,the material near axial shoulder is flowed into above all agitate needle is hind inside the cavity that stay, odd material criterion around move axial shoulder flows by ongoing side of agitate head hind; The material near agitate needle upside flows from agitate needle forehead with cut way agitate needle is hind; And the material near agitate needle lower end flows from the forehead of agitate needle with the means of extruding of agitate needle hind. Wang Xijing wait and all use FLUENT fluid project Wang Xunhong to emulated software to undertake numeric computation and imitate to the plasticity flow of metal of welding line of agitate friction welding. Document is initial reached fluid of plasticity of welding line of agitate friction welding flows transverse, fore-and-aft rule. From already in light of some document, it is better to use FLUENT software the plasticity of body of midstream of ground imitate FSW flows, but temperature field cannot very good clarify. In the meantime, because agitate friction welding receives the characteristic of the head, regarding pure fluid also is pair of actual processes is bigger simplify, the outcome is not quite ideal also. Document used ABAQUS software to build be based on nonlinear successive medium is mechanical and finite yuan of model, the data that studied the agitate friction welding below different parameter receives a condition to fall flows, imitate result makes clear, ongoing side puts welding line in eddy, and rate of flow of the data in eddy increases as the addition of floating rate. 3 physics model is the closest, use clay Liechty first (Plasticine) studied behaviour of flow of plasticity of metal of agitate friction welding as physical analogue. The blame vulcanization clay that different hardness used in document (NFP) , the experiment makes clear can obtain relative to softer clay flawless welding line, its flow characteristic similar also metal. Although clay is the material of a kind of indeterminate form, organization of its welding line and metallic organization are different, but its and metal have identical hot content sex, consequently can qualitative analysis and duplicate agitate friction welding accept deed of flow of process metal stuff. Use different color at the same time and the clay with same function can regard label material as visible data flow. Liechty further research was done to flow of plasticity of material of argillaceous physics imitate in document, through buy is being buried in clay little steel ball is mixed process of flow of data of attrition of agitate of research of ration of particle reseau law. The experiment obtained agitate needle through particle reseau law the greatest strain of around material and rate of meet an emergency, it is respectively 4.

4 with 1.

3s-1. Experimental result still makes clear, workpiece material and agitate needle surface are sliding contact, and the 6%~7% that the oldest rate of material of proximate agitate needle is agitate needle speed. Although the experimental research that the last word flows to metal of plasticity of the connect in friction welding process obtained certain result, but because the complexity of friction welding process is mixed,cannot see directly solder of the material in the process flow and get very big limitation. As the development of computer technology, apply numeric simulative method to study the analysis solders the flow of the material in the process has wider perspective. To friction welding plasticity the numeric imitate of process of going from place to place conduces to the deep understanding that receives mechanism to friction welding, but because friction welding is a very complex process, the parameter of sex of a lot of hot content related to its still is lacked very much, make numerical value of attrition plasticity flow considers to still be faced with a lot of and difficult thereby. But we believe, the development as computer technology and deepen further to what friction welding studies, the development that imitate of numerical value of friction welding process is sure to be able to be friction welding technology and application provide new power. CNC Milling